Mathematical relationships anywhere between metrics out of chemical compounds bioaccumulation inside seafood

Five widely used metrics of bioaccumulation in fish are defined and discussed, namely the octanol–water partition coefficient (KOW), bioconcentration factor (BCF), bioaccumulation factor (BAF), biomagnification factor (BMF), and trophic magnification factor (TMF). Algebraic relationships between these metrics are developed and discussed using conventional expressions for chemical uptake from water and food and first-order losses by respiration, egestion, biotransformation, and growth dilution. Two BCFs ely as an equilibrium partition coefficient KFW or as a nonequilibrium BCFK in which egestion losses are included. Bioaccumulation factors are shown to be the product of the BCFK and a ely, the diet-to-water concentration ratio and the ratio of uptake rate constants for respiration and dietary uptake. Biomagnification factors are shown to be proportional to the lipid-normalized ratio of the predator/prey values of BCFK and the ratio of the equilibrium multipliers. Relationships with TMFs are also discussed. The effects of chemical hydrophobicity, biotransformation, and growth are evaluated by applying the relationships to a range of illustrative chemicals of varying KOW in a linear 4-trophic-level food web with typical values for uptake and loss rate constants. The roles of respiratory and dietary intakes are demonstrated, and even slow rates of biotransformation and growth can significantly affect bioaccumulation. The BCFKs and the values of M can be regarded as the fundamental determinants of bioaccumulation and biomagnification in aquatic food webs. Analyzing data from food webs can be enhanced by plotting logarithmic lipid-normalized concentrations or fugacities as a linear function of trophic level to deduce TMFs. Implications for determining bioaccumulation by laboratory tests for regulatory purposes are discussed. Environ Toxicol Chem 2013;–1466. © 2013 SETAC


Bioaccumulation of all-natural chemical within the fish or any other organisms that may create eating organizations is a concern because of both you are able to negative effects to the bacteria by themselves therefore the possibility exposure to predators, including humans, that may eat this type of organisms. The main focus here is on the bioaccumulation in the seafood, but comparable values apply to bioaccumulation various other aquatic water-respiration organisms, and in addition they may apply to sky-respiration bacteria eg birds and you will mammals. As a result, a major international step has been launched to evaluate industrial chemicals to possess the power to bioaccumulate step 1, dos . Included in this initiative, different sorts of bioaccumulation research and you may metrics are widely used to influence whether in order to just what the amount agents is bioaccumulative. Comprehensive literary works can be obtained towards bioaccumulation from medical and regulating point of views, advice as being the product reviews by the Hairdresser 3, 4 , Mackay and Fraser 5 , Arnot and you will Gobas six , Ehrlich mais aussi al. eight , Burkhard mais aussi al. 8 , and you will Gobas mais aussi al. nine , aforementioned summarizing brand new results regarding a beneficial SETAC-paid working area stored from inside the 2008. This type of or any other reviews features talked about the existence of several metrics away from bioaccumulation that disagree in meaning, inside regulating app, along with adoption from the scientific people.

The goal the following is in order to explain and you will talk about the relationship anywhere between 5 popular bioaccumulation metrics getting aquatic organisms which have a perspective to help you making clear their relative deserves and applicability to possess bioaccumulation examination. I earliest temporarily determine and you will discuss the bioaccumulation metrics, after that pertain a bulk harmony model to examine and you can quantify this new matchmaking between the two. I seek to promote book knowledge towards the hidden process ensuing into the bioaccumulation and provide suggestions for boosting and searching for study having bioaccumulation examination.


For the current analysis, we define and describe 5 common metrics for assessing bioaccumulation. Differences exist in the definitions and usage of these terms; however, the definitions given here are used to develop mathematical relationships in the next section. The octanol–water partition coefficient (KOW) is widely used as an indicator of hydrophobicity and thus the partitioning of a chemical from water into lipids and other organic phases such as protein 10 . The KOW is primarily controlled by the solubility of the substance in water, because the solubility of neutral, liquid nonpolar organic chemicals in octanol is relatively constant. A log KOW value of 5 is often used as a bioaccumulation assessment criterion; however, depending on the regulatory program, lower values are also used to categorize bioaccumulation potential. Whereas KOW gives a reasonable and conservative estimate of lipid–water partitioning for nonpolar hydrophobic substances 11 , it may not accurately simulate partitioning for more polar and ionogenic organic chemicals and other chemical classes such as organofluorines and silicones. Direct empirical measurement is essential in such cases.